Food that we consume is broken down and processed in our digestive tract into sugar molecules known as glucose that can be easily absorbed by the cells of our body. The amount of #glucose# in our blood is modulated by the hormone #insulin# released by the #pancreas#. These glucose molecules are assisted by insulin to gain entrance inside the cells of the body. The insulin binds to the glucose molecules and act as a key that unlocks the door to the cells. Specifically, the insulin will carry the glucose to the #liver#, #muscle# and fat cells to be stored for release of future energy. In Type II #diabetes#, the cells are not responsive to insulin and this is known as #insulin resistance#. The insulin will still carry the glucose molecules to the cells but the cells will not open their doors as easily. As a result, there is too much sugar build-up in our blood, known as blood glucose concentration, which can damage the liver, kidneys, eye and nerves. The pancreas in turn tries to pump out more insulin to deal with the high glucose concentration in the blood stream. As a result of the increased insulin in the blood, it is also very difficult for the body to burn fats. In fact, the fatty acids in the blood move into fat storage that lead to increase in weight gain. Additionally, since the cells don’t have enough glucose to provide continuous energy release, one can feel more tired and have more sugar cravings.
Thus insulin resistance causes:
1) Fatigue and tiredness
2) Increased food cravings
3) Increased weight gain.
How can we cope with insulin resistance? We can eat more complex carbohydratess to slowly introduce the glucose into our blood stream – this prevents too much insulin from releasing and building up in the blood causing fat storage and subsequent weight gains.
We can simultaneously increase our levels of #physical activity# and engage in moderate exercises. When our muscles are more active, that increases the amount of glucose that can be easily taken up by our muscle cells, without needing the help of insulin. Additionally, the #energy storing capacity# in our muscles increases gradually with increased muscular activities.